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Elon Musk’s Neuralink to empower human brains with AI

Elon Musk’s Neuralink to empower human brains with AI

Introduction

Connecting our brains to the machine and saving memories for a lifetime was one of the tasks scientists have been chasing after for so long. But all this may come to life now! With Elon and his new venture of uniting man and machine together, Musk briefed the entire world about how he can connect our brains to computers and digitise the control through brains and much more! In July of 2019, Elon Musk had a presentation detailing the neural link project. Earlier in the year, musk had said that there are some big announcements coming and this was it. It was all about neuralink and world of possibilities which it brings along!

After watching the presentation and thinking about it a little bit, a lot of this stuff has actually been done before. It’s nothing new. It’s just been done a lot better! So let’s take a look at what the neuralink is how it works and the new future that we could all be facing.

About Neuralink company

Neuralink is a neuroprosthetics corporation working on implantable Brain-computer interfaces. Founded by Elon Musk, Ben Rapoport, Dongjin Seo and others, the company boasts of having several high profiles neuroscientists across the world. 

In the short term,company intends to produce devices for the treatment and eventual human enhancement, often called transhumanism, of severe brain diseases. The initial aim of the company is to build a module located outside the head gets data via wireless from small elastic, brain-integrated electrode strands which can be termed as the technology for the future.

What is the Neuralink product

The theory states that human cognition has two major systems. It consists of the limbic system where our emotions needs and once are processed and then the cortex which involves thinking and planning. The neural link in, its final form, is to be the third layer on top of this a digital super-intelligence layer augmenting ourselves with computers. It will become eventually an artificial intelligence depending on how you look at it. We already have this layer in the form of our phones and laptops. You’ve all heard the saying that we have all of the world’s information at our fingertips. The bottleneck and all of this is how we interface with that information. fingers and speech are too slow and have a very low bandwidth form of communication between us and our devices. 

A much faster way to get to this information would be directly from the brain and this is called the brain-machine interface (BMI) and the neural link is an effort to solve this problem. it’s already been a massive the multidisciplinary effort it includes scientists, doctors, electrical engineers, surgeons and more.

So how does it work? Our brain consists of neurons firing all the time in response to electrical signals sent. When we see, move talk or think, a neuron fires from these electrical signals. A tiny electromagnetic field is present to tap into these tiny generated neuron signals.

The brain is going to interpret this analogue data as ones and zeros to be used in the digital world. The neuron pulses will be detected using tiny threads (about one-tenth the cross-section of a human hair) each thread is to be installed with a robot so it’s not going to burst blood vessels or cause trauma

The needle for insertion is 24 microns in diameter which is much smaller than the state-of-the-art in deep brain stimulation. Such surgeries have been done before for deep brain stimulation on Parkinson’s sufferers. Through these traditional methods, we have a 1 in 100 chance of causing a severe brain haemorrhage. A smaller footprint should make things much safer. The state of the art for Parkinson’s deep brain stimulation has around 10 electrodes. The neural link contains thousands of electrodes. These electrodes need to be less than 60 microns away to detect a fire in neuron and serve as an interface that reads data from the brain and sends data to the brain. The processor for making all of this work is something called the n1 chip. 

The n1 chip reads analogue brain signals amplifies them, digitizes them processes them and then sends it out to a pot device behind the ear. The pod device is the only thing that’s going to be upgraded. As soon as you remove the pod and everything shuts off!

The n1 chip is 4 by 5 millimetres low-power and has built-in hardware for processing brain signals. It can read 20,000 brain samples per second so these are real raw signals coming from a neural link hooked up to a brain.

What the scientists are looking for spikes and voltage when a neuron fires, is the fundamental element of communication within the brain. An algorithm can detect these spikes in real-time decode them and make sense of the vast amounts of data coming in the system. It can not only read data from the brain but also write data to do this.

 A signal is run through an electrode near a neuron causing that neuron to fire. This kind of thing again isn’t new and has been done since the late 1950s it’s actually the basic technologies behind the cochlear implant the one that helps restore hearing the information inputted into the brain doesn’t have to be perfect because of neuroplasticity. This means that the brain learns how to use the new information reading data from the brain and inputting data into the brain can be and already kind of has been used to treat things like Parkinson’s and epilepsy but future applications can include things as far as depression and chronic pain!

The plan and the application

The original plan for the neural link is to connect for n1 chips with thousands of electrodes and coming from each chip signals will be sent via Bluetooth to the pod device behind the ER and it will be controlled by phone. The first goal is to get patients to be able to control a mobile device a phone mouse or computer keyboard. The neural link will show up as a regular Bluetooth keyboard or mouse they want to make people fully independent of their caretakers. This sounds lofty but has already been done before with a technology called the Utah Rae with only just a hundred electrodes patients are able to text other people and control tablets with their mind.

Remember the neural link has thousands of electrodes resulting in a cleaner more reliable signal for more complex applications. The first application for the neural link is to tap into the primary motor cortex the part of the brain that sends signals down to the spinal cord and onto the muscles to drive the movement. 

It will start with simple things like a mouse and keyboard but could also be used to read signals from all movement even speech and finally, it could be used to restore movement of someone’s own body. The materials science team wants to use materials or properties that would make the brain not only accept the neural link but think that it’s part of itself. The team has already released a paper of reading recording and studying data from brains using their n1 chip it’s fairly controversial but early tests on monkeys have been successful as well. Monkeys have been able to control the computer with his brain. There it goes but human patient trials are set to start by the end of 2020 the target patient will be a quadriplegic due to a spinal cord injury.

The main hurdle so far has been FDA approval for implantable devices so the future of neural link will be in three stages.

Stage one is to understand and treat brain disorders starting with people with a serious medical need 

Stage two is to preserve and enhance one’s own brain 

Stage three focusses on full brain-machine interfaces in the future that could even be a kind of app store for programs that you can download and control with your brain.

Other possibilities from the presentation include a new kind of communication which is some kind of like telepathy or downloading the memories of someone who’s familiar with a city so that when you go to that city you feel familiar with it too.

Summary

The possibility is a kind of endless but of course, these are the very early days and we hardly understand anything about the brain right now although what the neural link is basing itself off has already been done in the medical field for decades. What they’re proposing is a giant leap above all of that and it’s going to be a long road to get there! The obvious questions remaining is this ethical should we do this? What about the risks?

So what do you guys think? Do you think it’s an interesting idea and should be pursued or do you have some kind of reservations? We are going to leave our opinion out of this and let you decide!

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Top 10 reasons why Dimensionless is the Best Data Science Course Provider Online

Top 10 reasons why Dimensionless is the Best Data Science Course Provider Online

Introduction

Data Science was called “The sexiest work of the 21st Century” by the Harvard Review. Data researchers as problematic solvers and analysts identify patterns, notice developments and make fresh findings and often use real-time information, machine learning, and IA. This is where Data Science Course comes into the picture.

There is a strong demand for information researchers and qualified data scientists. Projections from IBM suggest that by 2020 the figure of information researchers will achieve 28%. In the United States alone, there will be 2,7 million positions for all US information experts. In addition, we were provided more access to detailed analyzes by strong software programs.

Dimensionless Tech offers the finest online data science course and big data coaching to meet the requirement, offering extensive course coverage and case studies, completely hands-on-driven meetings with personal attention to each individual. This assessment is a gold mine with invaluable insights. To satisfy the elevated requirement. We only provide internet LIVE instruction for instructors and not instruction in the school.

About Dimensionless Technologies

Dimensionless Technologies is a training firm providing online live training in the sector of data science. Courses include–R&P data science, deep learning, large-scale analysis. It was created in 2014, with the goal of offering quality data science training for an inexpensive cost, by 2 IITians Himanshu Arora & Kushagra Singhania.
Dimensionless provides a range of internet Data Science Live lessons. Dimensionless intends to overcome the constraints by giving them the correct skillset with the correct methodology, versatile, adaptable and versatile at the correct moment, which will assist learners to create informed business choices and sail towards a successful profession.

Why Dimensionless Technologies

Experienced Faculty and Industry experts

Data science is a very vast field and hence a comprehensive grasp over this subject requires a lot of effort. With our experienced faculties, we are committed to impart quality and practical knowledge to all the learners. Our faculty through their vast experience (10 plus industry experience) in the data science industry is best suited to show the right path to all students towards their success journey on the path of data science. Our trainer’s boast of their high academic career as well (IITian’s)!

End to End domain-specific projects

We, at Dimensionless, believe that concepts can be learned best when all the theory learned in the classroom can actually be implemented. With our meticulously designed courses and projects, we make sure our students get hands-on the projects ranging from pharma, retail, and insurance domains to banking and financial sector problems! End-to-end projects make sure that students understand the entire problem-solving lifecycle in data science

Up to date and adaptive courses

All our courses have been developed based on the recent trends in data science. We have made sure to include all the industry requirements for data scientists. Courses start from level 0 and assume no prerequisites. Courses make learners traverse from basic introductions to advanced concepts gradually with the constant assistance of our experienced faculties. Courses cover all the concepts to a great depth such that learners are never left wanting for more! Our courses have something or other for everyone whether you are a beginner or a professional.

Resource assistance

Dimensionless technologies have all the required hardware setup from running a regression equation to training a deep neural network. Our online-lab provides learners with a platform where they can execute all their projects. A laptop with bare minimum configuration (2GB RAM and Windows 7) is sufficient enough to pave your way into the world of deep learning. Pre-setup environments save a lot of time of learners in installing all the required tools. All the software requirements are loaded right in front of the accelerated learning

Live and interactive sessions

Dimensionless provides classes through live interactive classes on our platform. All the classes are taken live by instructors and are not in any pre-recorded format. Such format enables our learners to keep up their learning in the comfort of their own homes. You don’t need to waste your time and expenses in any travel and can take classes from any location of your preference. Also, after each class, we provide the recorded video of it to all our learners so that they can go through it to clear all their doubts. All trainers are available to post classes to clear the doubts as well

Lifetime access to study materials

Dimensionless provides lifetime access to the learning material provided in the course. Many other course providers provide access only till the time one is continuing with classes. With all the resources available thereafter, learnings for our students will not stop even after they have taken up our entire course

Placement assistance

Dimensionless technologies provide placement assistance to all its students. With highly experienced faculties and contacts in the industry, we make sure our students get their data science job and kick start their career. We help in all stages of placement assistance. From resume-building to final interviews, Dimensionless technologies is by your side to help you achieve all your goals

Course completion certificate

Apart from the training, we issue a course completion certificate once the training is complete. The certificate brings credibility to the resume of the learners and will help them in fetching their data science dream jobs

Small batch sizes

We make sure that we have small batch sizes of students. Keeping the batch size small allows us to focus on students individually and impart them a better learning experience. With personalized attention, we make sure students are able to learn as much possible and helps us to clear all their doubts as well

Conclusion

If you want to start a profession in data science, dimensionless systems have the correct classes for you. Not just all key ideas and techniques are covered but they are also implemented and used in real-world company issues.

Follow this link, if you are looking to learn data science online!

You can follow this link for our Big Data course! This course will equip you with the exact skills required. Packed with content, this course teaches you all about AWS tools and prepares you for your next ‘Data Engineer’ role

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Furthermore, if you want to read more about data science, read our Data Science Blogs

Concept of Cluster Analysis in Data Science

A Comprehensive Guide to Data Mining: Techniques, Tools and Application

A Comprehensive Introduction to Data Wrangling and Its Importance

The trending story of FaceApp and GANs

The trending story of FaceApp and GANs

Introduction

Have you been lately flooded with different posts on your social media profiles showing people with their current age on the left and their older self on the right? If yes and If you are wondering how people are doing it, then I may have an answer to your query here. There is a new app (only available on ios for now), FaceApp, which is behind this rising trend on social media. 

My initial guess was about that it must be one of the new image filter rolled out by Snapchat or Instagram but was clueless about the craze behind this trend. Since it’s similar to a 10-year challenge, rolled out by Facebook, earlier this year, there was no need for everyone to go crazy about this app. There are filters as well available which can make you look older. So why go bonkers over this new app?

If you look closely, results by FaceApp are much more realistic as compared to its image filter based counterparts in the Snapchat and Instagram. So what has FaceApp done which Snapchat and Instagram could not? We will try to answer this question in this blog. Before we proceed on to answer this question, let us understand what FaceApp is!

FaceApp used by celebs Arjun Kapoor and Deepika Padukone.
Courtesy: geekdashboard.com

What is FaceApp?

FaceApp is an IOS image processing app like many others on the app store which can process your images and bring changes to it. FaceApp was developed and released in 2016 by a small team of Russian developers. You can bring a selfie or use an ancient image from your phone and use a filter to use the app. The present free filters contain a smile that shows you old or young, sex bends, face hairs or the classic Walter White looks from the Breaking Bad TV series. The app gives its paying customers extra filters including maquilas, glasses and facial hair to their faces.

Changes include all the basic properties like contrast, brightness and sharpness to complex features like adding a smile, changing gender or showing an older/younger version of your self.

As previously said, all these features were available already on different apps as well but what makes the FaceApp really a winner is stark photo-realism. These images look more real and true rather than some blurry filter images. FaceApp with its surprisingly accurate image manipulation tricks has been able to gather a lot of attention because of which it has clocked over more than a million downloads in just 2 days. Rather than putting some creative or cartoonist filters over the images, FaceApp aims at manipulating the features present in the face in such a manner that it feels almost true to believe!

How is it different from Instagram filters?

So what is FaceApp doing differently? FaceApp rather than using image stacking or pixel manipulation uses Artificial Intelligence to bring the changes in the facial features. FaceApp makes use of the generative adversarial networks to create these images which are again too much realistic to be believed. Suppose you have a task of making a person smile in an image where he is not smiling at all. To make a person smile, extending the lips is not the only criteria. One needs to change all the facial features like eyes stretch, cheeks appearance in order to make the transformation realistic.

FaceApp has achieved this using GANs and this is exactly what is making this app stand out from the crowd. As far as we do not know of any other goods or studies of comparable performance in this field, FaceApp is far ahead in terms of the technology used. In the other section, let us dig deeper into the technique used by FaceApp

Underlying technology: GANs(Generative Adversarial Neural nets)

A Generative network is a type of AI machine learning (ML) method composed of two networks in a zero-sum game context that are in conflict with each other. GANs are usually unattended, teaching themselves how to imitate any specified information allocation.

There are two neural networks, the generator and the discriminator, that compose a GAN. The generator is a kind of neural system that creates fresh cases of an item, and the discriminator is a sort of neural network that determine its identity or whether it resides in a dataset.

During the teaching phase, both the models try to compete, their losses push each other towards improving behaviour and is called backpropagation. The generator’s objective is to generate reasonable performance while the discriminatory’s objective is to define the counterfeit. The generator generates high-quality results, and the discriminator is superior with the flagging components having a double feedback loop.

The first stage in the development of a GAN is for the required yield to be identified and the original learning data based on these parameters collect. This information are randomized and entered into the generator until the fundamental precision of the output is achieved.

Afterwards, the produced pictures and the real information points from the original concept are transmitted into the discriminator. The discriminator filters and gives the chance to reflect the validity of each image between 0 and 1 (1 corresponds to actual and 0 to falsify).

These values are then controlled manually and repeated until the required result is achieved. In a zero-sum game, both networks try to optimize a loss function.

Other use cases of GANs

  1. Generating realistic photographs
    This use case revolves around generating new human faces which are too realistic that you won’t ever believe that there exists no person in the entire world with that face. Realism and use of state of the art artificial neural networks have made it possible to generate fake faces at ease. Realism in these images is the one key factor which has stirred the world and has made the use of GANs really attractive! You can view the example here which generated random faces using the generative adversarial networks
  2. Image-to-Image Translation
    The image-to-image translation is the task of taking and transforming images from one domain to have the image style (or characteristics) from another.
  3. Text-to-Image Translation
    In recent times, translation from text to the image has been an active field of research. A network’s capacity to understand the significance of a phrase and to create a precise picture depicting the phrase demonstrates a model’s capacity to more like people. Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) are used to produce high-quality text input pictures through popular text to image translation techniques.

Proceed with caution

Experts have warned to allow them access to your personal details and identity by a FaceApp ancient age filter. FaceApp also involves in its terms and conditions, which you give the approval to access your picture gallery, the right of modifying, reproducing and publishing any image you process via its AI. This implies your face might finally be marketed.

By accepting the terms, we allow FaceApp to use, adapt, post, and distribute your user content in any media format on a perpetual, irrevocable, free of charge. This implies that you can use your actual name, your username or “any similarity is given” without notification, much less payment, in any format. You can keep it as long as you want and you can’t prevent it, even after you delete an app.

Summary

In this blog, we looked at the new emerging FaceApp which has gathered eyeballs all around. Furthermore, we also spent some time in understanding an overview of the technology which is behind this trending application. Although the faceApp has come with a breakthrough in the GANs technology and have set up high standards for the other apps, concerns around the data security and data-policy is still a concern with FaceApp. 

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Face Recognition Using Python

Face Recognition Using Python

Introduction

AI is revolutionizing the world. Face recognition is one such spectrum of it. Almost most of us use face recognition systems. They are everywhere. One can find them  in devices like our mobile or platforms like Facebook or applications like Photo gallery apps or advanced security cameras.

In this blog, we are going to have our hands dirty with facial recognition in python and learn how can we train a model to learn faces from images! Before we start with the implementation, let us dive down a little into basics of face recognition theory

 

What is Face Recognition?

The issue is answered by a face identification scheme: does an image’s face match the image’s face? A face recognition scheme requires a face picture and predicts if the face corresponds to other pictures in the database supplied. Face-recognition schemes have been developed to compare and forecast possible face match irrespective of speech, face hair, and age.

Facial recognition is the process of identifying or verifying the identity of a person using their face. It captures, analyzes and compares patterns based on the person’s facial details.

  • The face detection process detects and points out human faces in images.
  • The face capture process transforms camera feed (a face) into a set of mathematical representation based on the person’s facial features.
  • The face match process verifies if two faces are of the same person.

Today it’s considered to be the most natural of all biometric measurements.

What are the Steps in Face Recognition?

Step 1: Detecting the Faces

Face detection is the first phase in our pipeline. We must put the images in a picture before trying to divide them. Methods such as HOG can be used to define the images in a specified picture. Histograph of Oriented Gradients The distribution (histogram) of gradient instructions is used as characteristics in the HOG function descriptor. Gradients (X and Y derivatives) are helpful in an image because the size of the gradient is wide around edges and angles, and we know that edges and corners are more informed about the shape of an object than flat regions. HOG is more like a manner to detect a picture of the picture, by identifying the corners by the comparison of the various sections of the picture

Step 2: Face Landmark Estimation

Moreover, we have to cope with issues such as faces in various directions. Such images look completely different from a computer and the similarity between them on their own can not be found. We can use an algorithm known as face-point assessment to do this. Vahid Kazemi and Josephine Sullivan have created an strategy in 2014. The fundamental concept is that we will have 68 particular points on every face (called sights). Once we understand where there are distinct face characteristics, we can scale the picture for a single person, spin it and shear it.

Step 3: Face Encoding

We need a way to obtain a few fundamental readings from each face at this point. Then we could evaluate the unfamiliar face in the same manner and discover the most close-known face. This can be done with profound teaching (CNNs). Incorporation of characteristics from prior measures must be created. We can once recognize this embedding for an unidentified face.

Step 4: Classifying Unknown Faces into Known Ones

In fact, this is a simpler phase. All we have to do is discover the individual who has the nearest measurement to our sample picture in our database of recognized individuals. We can do this using an algorithm for fundamental teaching machines. All we have to do is train a classifier to measure from a fresh sample picture and show which recognized individual is nearest to each other. It requires milliseconds to run this classifier. The classificator outcome is the person’s name!

 

Transfer Learning for Face Recognition

Transfer training is a computer training process in which a model created for a job is used again as the basis for a second job model. It is an approach popular in the field of in-depth learning, where prequalified models are used to start computer vision and natural language treatment work, given the huge computer and time resources required to develop neural network models on these problems. We use transfer learning in our blog as well. For face detection and recognition, we use pre-built designs. Training a face recognition model is a very costly job. You need a bunch of information and computing energy to train profound facial recognition teaching models.

For our assignment, we will currently use python’s facial recognition library. The book uses the profound teaching model educated by a threefold loss function. The Siamese network we call. “Siamese” implies linked or attached. Perhaps you heard of Siamese twins? Siamese networks may be formed by convolutionary structures and dense or layers of LSTM. We will use the Convolutionary Siamese Network since we will cope with pictures to identify the faces. You can understand the architecture by this image :

Conventional Siamese Network Architecture

This is the fundamental algorithm:

  1. we take two photographs (Figures 1 and 2). The last layer of the CNN generates a permanent shape matrix (picture embedding), the last part of which is the CNN. We get two embeddings as two pictures are feed. (h2 and h1). (h1).
  2. The absolute range is calculated between the vectors.
  3. Then a sigmoid function passes through measurements and the resemblance value is generated.
  4. The scores are nearer to 1 if the pictures are comparable or nearer to 0.

 

Implementation

Getting the libraries

The first step is to load all the libraries. We will be using the face_recognition library for detection and recognition in this case. This library provides out of the box methods to perform various tasks involved during a facial recognition process.

 

Generating the Encodings for the Knows Users

In this section, we are trying to convert images of the known users into a mathematical representation. This mathematical representation is a high dimensional vector. We can call this high dimensional vector as an embedding. Each image has it’s own 1 embedding. These embeddings are important to describe an image in a high dimensional space. 

The code below tries to identify a face in a given image. Once the model detects the face, it extracts out facial features and passes them to another model which converts these features into a mathematical representation known as embeddings. In the end, we collate all the images and their corresponding embedding in a list. 

This is a set of true values for us. All the users present in this list are the ones which we want to recognize correctly. Any user out of this set should be called out as an “unknown” by the model!

 

Matching New Users

In the previous section, we generated embeddings for known users. Now, we need to generate these embeddings for the new test users whom we want to predict through our model.

We have a written a predict face utility function which will take in the input path of the test image and will return the name of the recognized person!

 

Getting the Predictions

The previous utility function takes one image as input. Below code, basically iterates over multiple test images present in a folder. It passes it to the predict function and collects the predicted name. All the results are stored in a data frame!

 

Calculating Model Metrics

This is an extension to measure the metrics of the model. We are calculating accuracy, specificity, recall and F1 score of our face prediction model.

 

Summary

Security is now one of the areas that most use face recognition. Facial recognition is a very efficient instrument which enforcers can use the technology to identify criminals and software businesses to assist consumers to access the technology. It is possible to further develop this technology to be used in other ways, like ATMs, private records or other delicate equipment. This may outdated other safety steps, including passwords and buttons.

In the subways and in the other rail networks, innovators also seek to introduce facial identification. You want to use this technology to pay for your transport charge, using faces as credit cards. The facial recognition takes your picture, runs it through a scheme and charges the account you have earlier developed instead of getting to go to a stand and purchase a ticket. This can rationalize the method and dramatically optimize traffic flow. Here’s the future.

Follow this link, if you are looking to learn data science online!

You can follow this link for our Big Data courseThis course will equip you with the exact skills required. Packed with content, this course teaches you all about AWS tools and prepares you for your next ‘Data Engineer’ role

Additionally, if you are having an interest in learning Data Science, click here to start the Online Data Science Course

Furthermore, if you want to read more about data science, read our Data Science Blogs

Concept of Cluster Analysis in Data Science

A Comprehensive Guide to Data Mining: Techniques, Tools and Application

A Comprehensive Introduction to Data Wrangling and Its Importance

 

Visualization Techniques for Datasets in Big Data

Visualization Techniques for Datasets in Big Data

Introduction

Data visualization is an important component of many company approaches due to the growing information quantity and its significance to the company. In this blog, we will be understanding in detail about visualisation in Big Data. Furthermore, we will be looking into the areas like why visualisation in big data is a tedious task or are there any tools available for visualising Big Data

 

What is Data Visualisation?

Data display represents data in a systematic manner, including information unit characteristics and variables. Data discovery techniques based on visualization enable company consumers to generate customized analytical opinions using disparate information sources. Advanced analytics can be incorporated into techniques for the development on desktop and laptop or mobile devices like tablets and smartphones of interactive and animated Graphics.

 

What is Big Data Visualisation?

Big data are large volumes, elevated speed and/or high-speed information sets that involve fresh types of handling to optimize processes, discover understanding and make choices. Data capture, storage, evaluation, sharing, searches and visualization face great challenges for big data. Visualization could be considered as “large information front end. There’s no data visualization myth.

  1. It is important to visualize only excellent information: an easy and fast view can show something incorrect with information just like it helps to detect exciting patterns.
  2. Visualization always manifests the correct choice or intervention: visualization is not a substitute for critical thinking.
  3. Visualization brings assurance: data are displayed, not showing an exact image of what is essential. Visualization with various impacts can be manipulated.

 

Tables, diagrams, pictures and other intuitive display methods to represent the information are created using visualization methods. Visualizing large information is not as simple as conventional tiny information sets. The expansion of traditional methods to visualization was already evolved but far enough. Many scientists use feature extraction and geometrical modeling in large-scale data visualization to significantly decrease the volume of information before real information processing. When viewing big data, it is also very essential to select the correct representation of information.

 

Problems in Visualising Big Data

In the visual analysis, scalability and dynamics are two main difficulties. The visualization of big data (structured or unstructured) with diversity and heterogeneity is a big difficulty. For big data analysis, speed is the required variable. Big information does not make it simple to design a fresh visualization tool with effective indexing. In order to improve the handling of Big Data scalability factors that influence information viewing decisions, cloud computing, and the sophisticated graphical user interface can be combined with Big Data. 

Unstructured information formats such as charts, lists, text, trees, and other information must be used by visualization schemes. Often large information has unstructured formats. Due to the constraints on bandwidth and power consumption, visualization should step nearer to the data to effectively obtain significant information. The software for visualization should be executed on location. Due to the large volume of the information, visualization requires huge parallelisation. The difficulty in simultaneous viewing algorithms is to break down an issue into autonomous functions that can be carried out at the same time.

 

There are also the following problems for big data visualization:

  • Visual noise: Most items on the dataset are too related to each other. There are also the following issues when viewing large-scale information. Users can not split them on the display as distinct items.

  • Info loss: Visible data sets may be reduced, but information loss may occur.

  • Broad perception of images: data display techniques are restricted not only by aspect ratio and device resolution but also by physical perception limitations.

  • The elevated pace of changes in the picture: users view information and are unable to respond to the amount of changes in information or its intensity.

  • High-performance requirements: In static visualization it is hard to notice because of reduced demands for display velocity— high performance demands.

     

Choice of visualization factors

 

  • Audience: The information depiction should be adjusted to the target audience. If clients are ending up in a fitness application and are looking at advancement, then simplicity is essential. On the other side, when information ideas are for scientists or seasoned decision-makers, you can and should often go beyond easy diagrams.

  • Satisfaction: The data type determines the strategies. For instance, when there are metrics that change over the moment, the dynamics will most likely be shown with line graphs. You will use a dispersion plot to demonstrate the connection between two components. Bar diagrams are ideal for comparison assessment, in turn.

  • Context: The way your graphs appear can be taken with distinct methods and therefore read according to the framework. For instance, you may want to use colors of one color to highlight a certain figure, which is a major profit increase relative to other years, and choose a shiny one as the most important component on the graph. Instead, contrast colors are used to distinguish components.

  • Dynamics: Dynamics. Data are distinct and each means a distinct pace of shift. For example, each month or year the financial results can be measured while time series and data tracking change continuously. Dynamic representation (steaming) or a static visualization can be considered, depending on the type of change.

  • Objective: The objective of viewing the information also has a major effect on the manner in which it is carried out. Visualizations are built into dashboards with checks and filters to carry out a complicated study of a scheme or merge distinct kinds of information for a deeper perspective. Dashboards are, however, not required to display one or more occasional information.

 

Visualization Techniques for Big Data

1. Word Clouds

Word clouds work easy: the larger and bolder the word is in the term cloud the more a particular word is displayed in a source of text information (such as a lecture, newspaper post or database).

Here is an instance of USA Today using the United States. State of Union Speech 2012 by President Barack Obama:

instance of USA Today

As you can see, words like “American,” “jobs,” “energy” and “every” stand out since they were used more frequently in the original text.

Now, compare that to the 2014 State of the Union address:

State of the Union address for american jobs

You can easily see the similarities and differences between the two speeches at a glance. “America” and “Americans” are still major words, but “help,” “work,” and “new” are more prominent than in 2012.

2. Symbol Maps

Symbol maps are merely maps shown over a certain length and latitude. You can rapidly create a strong visual with the “Marks” card at Tableau, which tells customers of their place information. You can also use the information to manage the form of the label on the map using the illustration in the Pie chart or forms for a different degree of detail.

These maps can be as simple or as complex as you need them to be

US maps for oil consumption

 

3. Line charts

Alternatively known as a row graph, a row graph is a graph of the information shown using a number of rows. Line diagrams show rows horizontally through the diagram, with the scores axis on the left hand of the diagram. An instance of a line chart displaying distinctive Computer Hope travelers can be seen in the image below.

line graph for distinctive Computer Hope travelers

As can be seen in this example, you can easily see the increases and decreases each year over different years.

4. Pie charts

A diagram is a circular diagram, split into sections like wedges, which shows the amount. The complete valuation of each coin is 100% and is a proportional portion of the whole.

The portion size can easily be understood on a look at pie charts. They are commonly used to demonstrate the proportion of expenditure, population sections or study responses across a big number of classifications.

pie chart for website traffic

5. Bar Charts

A bar graph is a visual instrument which utilizes bars to match information between cities. bars are also called a bar chart or bar diagram. A bar chart can be executed horizontally or vertically. What we need to understand is that the longer the bar is, the more valuable it is. Two axes are the bar graphs. The horizontal axis (or x-axis) is shown on a graph of the vertical bar, as shown above. They are years in this instance. The vertical axis is the magnitude. The information sequence is the colored rows.

Bar charts have three main attributes:

  • A bar character allows for a simple comparison of information sets among distinct organizations.
  • The graph shows classes on one axis and on the other a separate value. The objective is to demonstrate the connection between the two axes.
  • Bar diagrams can also display over moment large information modifications.

 

Data visulaisation in chart

6. Heat Maps

A heat map represents information that are displayed two-dimensionally by color values. An instant visual overview of the data is provided by a straightforward heat chart. 

There can be numerous methods to show thermal maps, but they all share one thing in common: to transmit interactions between information values in a tablet, they use a color that would be much difficult to comprehend.

Data visulaisation through heat maps

 

Visualisation Tools for Big Data

1. Power BI

Power BI is a company analysis option that enables you to view and share your information or integrate them into your app or blog. Connect to hundreds of information sources and live dashboards and accounts to take your information to life.

Microsoft Power BI is used to discover perspectives into the information of an organization. Power BI can communicate, convert and wash information into the data model and generate chart or diagram to display information graphics. All this can be communicated within the organisation with other consumers of Power BI.

Data models generated by Power BI can be used by organizations in many ways, including story telling through charts and views of data and “what if” scenarios inside the data. Power BI accounts can also respond to issues in real time and assist predict how departments will fulfill company criteria.

The Power BI can also provide executives or executives with corporate dashboards to provide them with an understanding of the agencies.

power BI dashboard

2. Kibana

Kibana is an open-source log analysis and time series analysis information visualization and exploring device for the surveillance of applications and operational intelligence instances. It provides strong and easy-to-use characteristics like histograms, diagrams, pie charts, thermal maps and integrated geospatial assistance. In addition, it ensures close inclusion with the famous analytics and search engine Elasticsearch, which makes Kibana the main option for viewing the information saved in Elasticsearch.

Kibana has been intended with Elasticsearch to render large and complicated information flows understandable by visual depiction more rapidly and smoothly. Elasticsearch analytics provide both information and improved aggregation mathematical transformations. The application produces a versatile, vibrant dashboard with PDF records on request or on timetable. The generated documents can depict information with customisable colors and highlighted search outcomes in the form of bar, row, scatter plot and paste graph sizes. Kibana also involves visualized data sharing instruments.

kibana Dashboard

 

3. Grafana

Grafana is a metrics & visualizing package of open source analysis. It is used most frequently for moment serial data visualization for infrastructure and implementation analysis, but many use it in other areas including agricultural equipment, domestic automation, climate, and process control.

Grafana is a temporary information sequence display instrument. A graphical description can be obtained from a lot of gathered information of the position of a business or organisation. How are they doing it? The collaborative editing of Wikidata, an extensive database of information, that increasingly builds papers in Wikipedia, utilizes the grafana.wikimedia.org to demonstrate openly (in our situation we do so on a regular basis) the publishings conducted out by associates and computers, in a certain span of moment produced and edited’ websites,’ or information sheets:

Gafrana Dashboard

 

4. Tableau

Tableau has been utilized in the business intelligence industry as a strong and rapidly increasing information vision instrument. It makes it readily understandable to simplify raw information.

Data analysis with Tableau is very quick and the visualizations are in the shape of dashboards and tablets. The information produced using Tableau can be comprehended at every stage in an organisation by the specialist. It even enables a non-technical user a personalized dashboard to be created.

The best feature Tableau are

  • Data Blending
  • Real-time analysis
  • Collaboration of data

Tableau software is fantastic because it does not require any technical or programming abilities to function. The instrument has attracted individuals from all sectors, such as company, scientists, various industries, etc.

Tableau dashboard

 

Summary

Static or vibrant visualizations can be interactive viewing often results in discovery and works better than static information instruments. Interactive views can assist you to get an overview of big data. The scientific method can be facilitated by interactive brushing and connecting visualisation methods to networks or web-based instruments. The web-based display enables to ensure dynamic data is kept up to date and updated.

There is not sufficient room for extending some standard visualization methods to manage big data. More fresh Big Data viewing techniques and instruments for various Big Data apps should be created

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